Insulin resistance and prediabetes are two conditions that are becoming increasingly common in today's world. Insulin resistance occurs when the body's cells become resistant to the effects of insulin, while prediabetes is a condition in which blood sugar levels are higher than normal but not yet high enough to be classified as diabetes. In this blog post, we will explore the causes of these conditions and discuss effective prevention strategies to help you maintain optimal health.
What is insulin and Insulin Resistance?
Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that regulates the amount of glucose (sugar) in our blood. When we eat, our body breaks down carbohydrates into glucose, which then enters our bloodstream. Insulin signals to cells in the liver, muscles and fat tissues to absorb excess glucose from the blood and store it for later use as energy.
Insulin resistance occurs when cells become less responsive to insulin signals, causing glucose levels in the blood to rise. It can develop over time due to several factors such as genetics, obesity, lack of physical activity and poor diet.
As insulin resistance progresses, the pancreas produces more insulin to compensate for the resistance. This can place a strain on the pancreas and lead to high blood sugar levels, eventually leading to type 2 diabetes.
What is Prediabetes?
Prediabetes is a condition in which blood sugar levels are higher than normal, but not high enough to be classified as type 2 diabetes. It is often considered a warning sign that someone is at risk of developing full-blown diabetes in the future.
Prediabetes occurs when the body becomes resistant to insulin, a hormone that regulates blood sugar levels. This means that the body cannot properly use insulin to transfer glucose (sugar) from the bloodstream into cells where it can be used for energy.
As a result, high levels of glucose build up in the bloodstream, leading to prediabetes. If left untreated, prediabetes can develop into type 2 diabetes, a chronic condition that affects how the body processes blood sugar. Type 2 diabetes can also lead to other serious health issues such as heart disease, stroke, kidney disease, and nerve damage.
However, the good news is that prediabetes is reversible through lifestyle changes.
It's important for people with prediabetes to monitor their blood sugar levels regularly and make the necessary changes to prevent the progression of the condition. Prediabetes can be diagnosed through a simple blood test called A1C, which measures the average level of blood sugar over the past few months.
Symptoms of insulin resistance
Range of symptoms such as:
1. Fatigue: Insulin resistance can make you feel tired or fatigued, even if you've had enough sleep.
2. Weight gain: it can cause weight gain, particularly around the midsection.
3. Increased hunger and cravings: Because this hormone helps regulate blood sugar levels and appetite, insulin resistance can lead to increased hunger and cravings for sugary or starchy foods .
4. High blood sugar levels: Insulin resistance can cause your blood sugar levels to rise, which can lead to a range of health problems.
5. Difficulty losing weight: Despite diet and exercise efforts, people with insulin resistance may have difficulty losing weight.
6. Skin changes: Dark patches of skin on the back of the neck, armpits or other areas called acanthosis nigricans can be a sign of insulin resistance.
7. High blood pressure: Insulin resistance can lead to hypertension or high blood pressure.
8. Abnormal cholesterol levels: Insulin resistance can affect cholesterol levels by increasing triglycerides and lowering HDL, or "good," cholesterol levels.
9. Increased risk of type 2 diabetes: Insulin resistance is a key risk factor for developing type 2 diabetes.
10. Cardiovascular disease: People with insulin resistance are at an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease due to the impact of high insulin levels on blood vessels and the heart.
It's important to note that not everyone with insulin resistance may experience all of these symptoms, and some people may not experience any symptoms at all. However, if you are experiencing any of these symptoms or have a family history of type 1 or type 2 diabetes or insulin resistance.
Causes of Insulin Resistance and Prediabetes
Here are some of the causes of insulin resistance and prediabetes:
1. Obesity: Being overweight or obese can cause insulin resistance and prediabetes. Excess fat in the body can impair the function of insulin receptors, making them less sensitive to this hormone.
2. Sedentary lifestyle: Lack of physical activity can lead to insulin resistance and pred iabetes. Regular exercise can help improve insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake in the body.
3. Genetics: Some people may be genetically predisposed to insulin resistance and prediabetes. It is important to get tested if you have a family history of these conditions.
4. Age: As we age, our bodies become less efficient at processing glucose, which can lead to insulin resistance and prediabetes.
5. Sleep disturbances: Studies have shown that lack of sleep or poor quality sleep can contribute to insulin resistance and prediabetes.
6. Certain medications: Some medications such as steroids, antipsychotics, and certain HIV medications can cause insulin resistance and prediabetes.
7. Hormonal imbalances: Conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and Cushing's syndrome can cause hormonal imbalances that lead to insulin resistance and prediabetes.
8. Chronic stress: Long-term stress can cause the body to release cortisol, a hormone that can increase blood sugar levels, leading to insulin resistance and prediabetes.
It is important to note that these causes are not mutually exclusive, and many individuals may have multiple factors contributing to their insulin resistance or prediabetes.
Role of Genetics in Prediabetes and Insulin Resistance
Prediabetes and insulin resistance are complex conditions that involve multiple factors, including lifestyle habits, environment, and genetics. In this article, we will focus on the role of genetics in these conditions.
Several genetic factors have been linked to prediabetes and insulin resistance. Studies have identified specific genes that affect insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity, and glucose metabolism. For example, the TCF7L2 gene has been found to play a significant role in this hormone secretion and glucose homeostasis. Variants of this gene have been associated with an increased risk of developing prediabetes and type 2 diabetes.
Another gene that has been linked to insulin resistance is the PPARγ gene. This gene regulates the production of adiponectin, a hormone involved in glucose regulation and this hormone sensitivity. Variants of this gene have been associated with a higher risk of developing insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.
In addition to these genes, there are also genetic variations that influence body weight and fat distribution, which can indirectly impact insulin resistance and prediabetes. For example, variations in the FTO gene have been linked to an increased risk of obesity, which is a known risk factor for both conditions.
It is important to note that genetics alone do not determine the development of prediabetesor insulin resistance. Environmental factors such as diet, exercise, and stress also play a significant role. However, understanding the genetic component of these conditions can help identify individuals who may be at higher risk and develop targeted prevention and management strategies.
Lifestyle Factors in Prediabetes and Insulin Resistance
Both conditions are caused by a combination of genetic and lifestyle factors, including physical activity level, diet, sleep patterns, stress levels, and exposure to toxins.
Physical Activity: Regular exercise helps reduce insulin resistance by making muscle cells more responsive to this hormone. Additionally, exercise can help maintain a healthy weight and improve overall fitness levels.
Diet: A balanced diet that includes plenty of fibre-rich fruits and vegetables, whole grains, lean protein sources, and healthy fats is essential in preventing prediabetes and insulin resistance. Consuming high amounts of processed and sugar-laden foods can increase your risk of developing these conditions.
Sleep Patterns: People who get less than 7 hours of sleep each night are at a higher risk for insulin resistance and prediabetes. Sleep is crucial for regulating hormones that control blood sugar levels, so making sure you get enough restful sleep is important in preventing these conditions.
Stress Levels: Chronic stress can lead to increased production of cortisol, a hormone that can raise blood sugar levels and contribute to insulin resistance. Learning how to manage and reduce stress through relaxation techniques like meditation, yoga or deep breathing can help prevent these conditions.
Exposure to Toxins: Exposure to certain toxic chemicals, such as pesticides and air pollutants, has been linked to an increased risk of insulin resistance and prediabetes. Minimizing exposure to these toxins by eating organic foods and reducing air pollution in your environment can be helpful in preventing these conditions.
Other Medical Conditions in Prediabetes and Insulin Resistance
Prediabetes and insulin resistance are medical conditions that frequently occur simultaneously. In addition to these conditions, there are several other medical conditions that can arise as a consequence of prediabetes and insulin resistance.
Firstly, individuals with prediabetes and insulin resistance have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. This is because insulin resistance impairs the body's ability to regulate blood sugar levels, ultimately leading to high blood glucose levels. Over time, prolonged high blood glucose levels can damage organs such as the kidneys, eyes, nerves, and heart.
Secondly, individuals with prediabetes and insulin resistance may also develop high blood pressure (hypertension). This is due to the fact that insulin resistance can cause a narrowing of blood vessels, which in turn leads to an increase in blood pressure.
Thirdly, individuals with prediabetes and insulin resistance are at a higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease. The combination of high blood glucose levels and hypertension can damage the walls of arteries, leading to the development of plaque buildup that can cause heart attacks and strokes.
Additionally, prediabetes and insulin resistance have been linked to polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) in women. PCOS is a hormonal disorder that can lead to irregular periods, ovarian cysts, and fertility problems. Research has shown that insulin resistance plays a significant role in the development of PCOS.
Furthermore, individuals with prediabetes and insulin resistance may also experience sleep apnea. This is because insulin resistance can affect the muscles responsible for breathing, leading to disruptions in breathing during sleep.
Finally, prediabetes and insulin resistance have been linked to an increased risk of developing certain types of cancer, such as colorectal cancer and pancreatic cancer. The exact mechanism behind this link is not yet fully understood but is believed to be related to the chronic inflammation and insulin signaling pathways involved in these diseases.
Diagnosis of Insulin Resistance and Prediabetes
The diagnosis of insulin resistance and prediabetes can usually be made through blood tests. One common test is the fasting plasma glucose (FPG) test, which measures glucose levels after an overnight fast. A level between 100-125 mg/dL indicates prediabetes, while a level above 126 mg/dL is indicative of diabetes. Another test is the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), which involves drinking a sugary solution and measuring blood sugar levels over time. A level between 140-199 mg/dL after two hours indicates prediabetes and a level above 200 mg/dL indicates diabetes.
In addition to these tests, doctors may also use measures of this hormone sensitivity, such as the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) or the insulin tolerance test (ITT), to diagnose insulin resistance. These tests measure the body's ability to use insulin effectively and can help identify early signs of insulin resistance before prediabetes or diabetes develop.
Normal Insulin Levels
Normal hormonal levels refer to the amount of insulin that should be present in a person's bloodstream at any given time. When we eat carbohydrates, our body breaks them down into glucose, which enters the bloodstream. High levels of glucose trigger the pancreas to release insulin into the bloodstream, which helps move the glucose out of the bloodstream and into cells where it can be used for energy.
The normal range for fasting insulin (the level after an overnight fast) is typically between 2 and 25 micro units per millilitre (μU/mL). However, the exact normal range may vary slightly depending on the lab and method used to measure this hormone levels. Additionally, it is important to note that normal insulin levels vary throughout the day and can be influenced by factors such as eating, exercise, stress, and medications.
Maintaining normal levels is crucial for overall health as high or low hormone levels can lead to a variety of health problems. High levels, known as hyperinsulinemia, can be a precursor to type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Low levels, known as hypoglycemia, can cause symptoms such as dizziness, confusion, and fainting.
Prevention Strategies for Insulin Resistance and Prediabetes
Prevention strategies for insulin resistance and prediabetes primarily focus on maintaining a healthy lifestyle. Regular exercise, a healthy diet that is low in unhealthy fats and added sugars, and maintaining a healthy weight can all play an important role in preventing these conditions. Additionally, reducing stress levels and getting enough sleep can also be helpful in preventing insulin resistance and prediabetes. For those with a family history or other risk factors for these conditions, regular screening and monitoring may also be recommended by healthcare professionals.
Diet and Nutrition Recommendations
First and foremost, individuals with insulin resistance or prediabetes should aim to maintain a healthy weight through a balanced and calorie-controlled diet. This includes consuming a variety of foods from all food groups in appropriate portions, with an emphasis on whole grains, fruits, vegetables, lean proteins, and healthy fats.
Carbohydrate intake should be monitored closely, as carbohydrates are the primary macronutrient that affects blood sugar levels. It is recommended to consume complex carbohydrates such as whole grains, legumes, and vegetables that have a lower glycemic index and do not cause rapid spikes in blood sugar levels. Simple carbohydrates such as sugary drinks and processed foods should be limited or avoided altogether.
Protein intake is also important, as it helps to regulate blood sugar levels and promote satiety. Lean sources of protein such as poultry, fish, tofu, beans, and lentils are excellent choices.
Fats should be chosen wisely, with an emphasis on healthy fats such as nuts, seeds, avocados, and fatty fish. Saturated and trans fats found in fried foods, fast food, and processed snacks should be limited or avoided.
In addition to macronutrients, adequate intake of micronutrients such as vitamins and minerals is crucial for overall health. It is recommended to consume a variety of fruits and vegetables to ensure that nutrient needs are met. Foods high in antioxidants, such as berries, leafy greens, and cruciferous vegetables, can also help to mitigate the inflammation associated with insulin resistance.
Portion control is another key aspect of managing insulin resistance and prediabetes. Eating smaller, more frequent meals throughout the day can help to keep blood sugar levels stable and prevent overeating.
Exercise and Physical Activity Recommendations
The American Diabetes Association recommends that adults with prediabetes engage in at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise per week, spread out over at least three days per week, with no more than two consecutive days without exercise. Resistance training or weight lifting exercises should also be performed at least twice per week.
Moderate-intensity aerobic exercise can include activities such as brisk walking, cycling, swimming, or dancing. Resistance training exercises can include using free weights, weight machines, or resistance bands.
It is also important to incorporate physical activity into daily routines, such as taking the stairs instead of the elevator or parking farther away from destinations to increase walking time.
If starting a new exercise routine, it is important to consult with a healthcare provider first to ensure it is safe and appropriate. Additionally, gradually increasing the intensity and duration of exercise can help prevent injury and burnout.
The best supplement Recommendations
Berberine and NMN are two natural supplements that have been shown to be effective in improving insulin resistance and prediabetes.
Berberine is a plant compound that has been used for centuries in traditional Chinese medicine. Studies have shown that berberine can improve this hormone sensitivity, decrease insulin resistance, and lower blood sugar levels in people with type 2 diabetes and prediabetes. Berberine works by activating an enzyme called AMPK, which helps to regulate energy metabolism in the body. This can lead to increased glucose uptake by the cells, improved insulin signalling, and a decrease in liver glucose production. Moreover, it has a very similar effect to Metformin.
NMN is a molecule that is naturally produced in the body and plays a role in energy metabolism. NMN supplementation has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity and reduce inflammation, which can help to prevent or reverse insulin resistance and prediabetes. NMN works by increasing the production of a molecule called NAD+, which is involved in many cellular processes, including energy metabolism and DNA repair. As we age, our levels of NAD+ decline, leading to decreased metabolic function, increased inflammation, and increased risk for diseases like diabetes. NMN supplements can increase NAD+ levels, which can improve this hormone sensitivity and reduce inflammation.
Both berberine and NMN are natural supplements that have been shown to be safe and effective in improving insulin resistance and prediabetes. However, it is important to consult with a healthcare provider before starting any new supplement regimen, especially if you are currently taking medication or have a pre-existing medical condition. By incorporating these natural remedies and healthy habits into your routine, you can take control of your health and reduce your risk of developing this chronic disease.
Difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes
Diabetes is a chronic disease characterized by high levels of glucose (sugar) in the blood (hyperglycemia). There are two main types of diabetes: type 1 and type 2.
Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that occurs when the immune system attacks and destroys insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. It is a hormone that regulates glucose levels in the blood, so people with type 1 diabetes cannot produce enough insulin to control their blood sugar. This means they require insulin injections or an insulin pump to manage their glucose levels.
Type 1 diabetes usually develops in childhood or adolescence, but it can occur at any age. The cause of type 1 diabetes is not fully understood, but it is believed to be a combination of genetic and environmental factors.
Type 2 diabetes, on the other hand, occurs when the body becomes resistant to this hormone or does not produce enough insulin to regulate blood sugar levels. Unlike type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes is often associated with lifestyle factors such as obesity, lack of physical activity, and poor diet.
Type 2 diabetes is more common in adults, although it is becoming increasingly prevalent in younger people due to rising rates of obesity. In the early stages, type 2 diabetes can often be managed with lifestyle changes including a healthy diet and regular exercise. However, some people with type 2 diabetes may require medication and/or insulin to manage their blood sugar levels.
It is important to note that while both types of diabetes have different causes, they share many similar symptoms such as increased thirst, frequent urination, and fatigue. It is essential for individuals experiencing any of these symptoms to seek medical attention to receive proper diagnosis and treatment.
Insulin side effects and complications
A hormone that helps regulate blood sugar levels in the body. It is commonly used as a medication for people with diabetes to help manage their blood sugar levels. While it is generally safe and effective, there are some potential side effects that people should be aware of.
One of the most common side effects of insulin is hypoglycemia or low blood sugar. This can happen if too much insulin is taken, or if the person doesn't eat enough food after taking it. Symptoms of hypoglycemia include sweating, shakiness, confusion, dizziness, and rapid heartbeat. Hypoglycemia can be dangerous if not treated promptly, and severe cases may require emergency medical attention.
Another potential side effect of it is weight gain. It helps the body store glucose as fat, which can lead to weight gain over time. This side effect can be managed by maintaining a healthy diet and exercising regularly.
In some cases, people may develop an allergic reaction to insulin. Symptoms of an allergic reaction include rash, itching, swelling, and difficulty breathing or swallowing. If you experience any of these symptoms after taking it, seek medical attention immediately.
Long-term use of insulin may also increase the risk of developing certain health conditions such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and kidney disease. Regular monitoring of these parameters is therefore essential for people on insulin therapy.
Insulin injections may also cause local side effects such as redness, swelling or itching at the injection site. These usually resolve within a few days and can be managed by rotating injection sites and using proper injection techniques.
It is important to discuss any potential side effects with your healthcare provider before starting insulin therapy. They can provide guidance on how to manage any side effects that may arise and help ensure that you are taking the appropriate dose of insulin for your specific needs.
Additionally, it is important to regularly monitor your blood sugar levels and keep track of any changes or patterns. This can help you and your healthcare team make adjustments to your insulin regimen as needed.
Remember, it is a valuable tool in managing diabetes, but it must be used properly and with caution to avoid potential side effects. With proper education and guidance from your healthcare team, you can successfully manage your diabetes and minimize the risk of complications.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ):
How do you fix insulin resistance?
Insulin resistance can be managed and improved by making certain lifestyle changes. These include maintaining a healthy weight, exercising regularly, reducing stress levels, avoiding processed and sugary foods, increasing fiber intake, and getting enough sleep. In some cases, medication may also be prescribed to help manage this hormone levels. It's important to work closely with a healthcare professional to develop a personalized plan for managing insulin resistance.
What is the main cause of insulin resistance?
The primary cause of insulin resistance is excess weight, particularly around the abdomen. This can lead to inflammation and an accumulation of fat in the liver and other tissues, which disrupts normal insulin signalling pathways. Genetics, ageing, and certain medications or medical conditions may also contribute to insulin resistance. However, one of the best way of maintaining a healthy weight through regular exercise and a balanced diet can help prevent or even reverse this condition.
Can you be insulin resistant without being diabetic?
Yes, it is possible to be insulin resistant without being diabetic. Insulin resistance is a condition in which the body's cells become less responsive to it, a hormone that helps regulate blood sugar levels. This can lead to higher-than-normal blood sugar levels over time, but individuals may not yet meet the diagnostic criteria for diabetes. However, if insulin resistance is left untreated, it can progress into type 2 diabetes. Other risk factors for insulin resistance include obesity, sedentary lifestyle, and genetics.
What conditions are associated with insulin resistance?
Insulin resistance is a metabolic condition where the body's cells become resistant to the effects of insulin hormone, resulting in increased blood glucose levels. This condition is often associated with obesity and physical inactivity. Other conditions that have been linked to insulin resistance include polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), hypertension, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Genetics may also play a role in increasing one's risk of developing insulin resistance.
What new research is being conducted on insulin resistance?
Researchers from around the globe are working tirelessly to uncover new insights into underlying mechanisms.
One significant area of research involves understanding how genetic predisposition contributes to insulin resistance. Scientists are studying specific genes that may increase an individual's risk of developing insulin resistance, which could help identify those at risk and develop targeted interventions.
Another area of focus is on the role of gut microbiota in regulating insulin sensitivity. Recent research suggests that maintaining a healthy balance of gut bacteria can improveit and reduce the risk of developing insulin resistance. This has led to investigations on how interventions such as probiotics, prebiotics, and dietary changes can influence the gut microbiome and improve metabolic health.
Furthermore, researchers are also exploring the link between chronic inflammation and insulin resistance. Chronic inflammation is a common feature in many metabolic disorders, including insulin resistance. Studies are investigating how reducing inflammation through lifestyle modifications, such as exercise and diet changes, may help improve it.
Other research areas include investigating the impact of sleep deprivation and stress on this hormone sensivity, discovering new targeted therapies to improve insulin signaling pathways, and developing non-invasive ways to measure insulin resistance.
Overall, the research on insulin resistance is constantly evolving, and scientists are discovering new insights into this complex condition. By understanding the underlying mechanisms of insulin resistance, researchers hope to identify effective interventions to prevent or treat metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease.
How is insulin resistance treated?
Insulin resistance is typically treated with a combination of lifestyle changes and medication. The primary focus is on improving insulin sensitivity through regular exercise, a healthy diet, and weight management. Medications that help decrease insulin resistance or increase insulin production may also be prescribed by a healthcare provider. In some cases, bariatric surgery may be recommended for those who are severely overweight or have not responded to other treatment options. It's important to work closely with a healthcare provider to develop an individualized treatment plan for managing insulin resistance.
Who is more likely to develop insulin resistance?
People who are overweight or have a sedentary lifestyle are more likely to develop insulin resistance. Additionally, those who consume high amounts of processed and sugary foods, smoke, drink excessively, have a family history of diabetes or gestational diabetes during pregnancy are also at a higher risk. Aging and certain medical conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and sleep apnea can also increase the risk of developing insulin resistance.
How can NMN Supplement UK increase insulin sensitivity?
Nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) is a molecule that has been shown to increase sensitivity in several studies. Insulin sensitivity refers to the ability of cells in the body to respond to insulin and take up glucose from the bloodstream. When cells are not sensitive to insulin, they cannot properly regulate blood sugar levels, which can lead to a range of health issues including type 2 diabetes.
One way that NMN increases this hormone sensitivity is by activating an enzyme called SIRT1. SIRT1 plays a key role in regulating glucose metabolism and energy homeostasis in the body. When SIRT1 is activated by NMN, it can help to improve sensitivity and glucose uptake in cells. Additionally, NMN has been shown to increase the production of another molecule called NAD+, which also plays a role in energy metabolism and insulin signaling.
Furthermore, studies have found that NMN supplement UK can reduce inflammation in fat tissue, which can contribute to insulin resistance. By reducing inflammation, NMN can improve overall metabolic health and increase sensitivity.
Overall, through the activation of SIRT1, increased production of NAD+, and reduction of inflammation, NMN has the potential to be a promising treatment for insulin resistance and related conditions such as type 2 diabetes. However, more research is needed to fully understand the mechanisms involved and to determine optimal dosages and potential side effects. As always, it is recommended that individuals consult with their healthcare provider before starting any new supplement or treatment.
How can Berberine UK help people with Diabetes?
Berberine UK is a bioactive compound extracted from various plants and has been shown to have numerous therapeutic benefits for people with diabetes. Berberine can help in the following ways:
1. Regulating blood sugar levels: Berberine activates the AMPK enzyme which helps increase glucose uptake by the cells, thereby lowering blood sugar levels.
2. Improving insulin sensitivity: Berberine helps improve sensitivity by reducing insulin resistance and increasing the activity of insulin receptors.
3. Reducing inflammation: Chronic inflammation is often associated with diabetes, and berberine has been shown to reduce inflammation in the body , thereby improving overall health.
4. Lowering cholesterol levels: Berberine has been found to lower LDL (bad) cholesterol levels, which is important for people with diabetes who are at an increased risk of heart disease.
5. Promoting weight loss: Berberine has been shown to help promote weight loss by reducing appetite and increasing metabolism.
In addition, studies have also suggested that berberine may help prevent complications associated with diabetes such as neuropathy, nephropathy, and retinopathy.
It is important to note that while berberine can be a helpful addition to the treatment plan for people with diabetes, it should not be used as a replacement for medication prescribed by a healthcare provider. It is always important to consult with a healthcare professional before starting any new supplement or treatment regimen.